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|Whilst most psychiatrists study psychology as their undergraduate major , actually, Psychiatry degrees donít exist, so any major that involves the satisfaction of med school pre-requisites is suitable.
The primary differences are highlighted below, to be able to clarify exactly where the line is drawn between psychiatry majors and psychology majors.
Psychologists consider nature, nurture, behaviour patterns and life experiences as being the root source of psychological problem. Psychiatrists consider biological flaws or chemical imbalances to be the root source of most psychiatric issues.
Psychologists, unlike psychiatrists, are not licensed doctors, and therefore cannot prescribe medicine, hence are less likely to include medication as portion of treatment. As part of the treatment, Psychiatrists usually prescribe medication.
Psychologists could only administer psychological exams and tests, while a psychiatrist can administer medical examinations. Psychology degrees & psychology majors exist, while psychiatry degrees & psychiatry majors do not. Observing both professions in the first place of each career path, we notice striking differences:
This may be any 4 year degree from an accredited program at an accredited institution, this is the typical for both psychologists and psychiatrists for Psychology Major as undergraduate degree. There isnít any undergraduate psychiatry degrees.
Psychologists continue to graduate school where they obtain higher learning of their field, psychiatrists carry on to medical school, exactly where they complete 4 more years of education to become a qualified MD or DO.
Residency & Training
Psychology majors normally go on to obtain PhDs of their field as it has become increasingly competitive over the years and an MSc is the minimum requirement to remain competitive. A lot like a psychiatric residency, this entails clinical coursework and rotations.
Like all doctors, psychiatrists complete clinical coursework and rotations during medical school and also have to complete a medical residency. For anyone wanting to specialise in psychiatry, a placement in psychiatry as part of the rotation program is obviously recommended.
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SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 17 (Xinhua) -- Adding to the concern that network-enabled electronic devices could be co-opted to steal data or invade privacy, computer scientists have demonstrated how it is possible to transform such a device into a surveillance tool.
Such a tool can collect information about the body position and movements of the user.
In addition, by remotely hijacking a smart device to play music embedded with repeating pulses that track a person's position, body movements, and activities both in the vicinity of the device as well as through walls, the researchers at the University of Washington (UW) have shown how to track other people in the device's immediate vicinity.
Having created CovertBand, a software code able to turn smart devices into remote-controlled active sonar systems with built-in microphones and speakers, they plan to present their work at the Ubicomp 2017 conference, an Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) event on pervasive and ubiquitous computing, on Sept. 13 in Hawaii.
"The physical information CovertBand can gather - even through walls - sufficiently detailed for an attacker to know what the user is doing, as well as other people nearby," senior author Shyam Gollakota, a UW associate professor of computer science and engineering, was quoted as saying in a news release this week.
Active sonar systems, such as those on submarines, determine the position of objects by sending out an acoustic pulse. Those sound waves bounce off objects in their path, and the deflected waves can be picked up by a receiver to determine the object's position, distance and shape.
Through the speaker of a smartphone or other device, CovertBand sends out a repeating pulse of sound waves in the 18 to 20 kHz range. These sound waves are reflected when they encounter objects in their path. CovertBand uses the device's built-in microphones as a receiver to pick up these reflected sound waves. The smart device then transmits this information to the attacker, who could be a few feet, or meters, away or halfway across the globe.
The research team tested CovertBand's effectiveness using a smartphone hooked up to either a portable speaker or a standard flat-screen TV. In both cases, CovertBand's data could be used to decipher repetitive movements such as arm-pumping, walking or pelvic tilts to a range of up to 6 meters from the smartphone, with a positional error of 8 to 18 centimeters.
They also discovered that, with the portable speaker, CovertBand's pulses can transmit through thin, interior walls - though the range drops to 2 to 3 meters.
The 18 to 20 kHz repeating pulses are on the low range of what many people can hear accurately. To increase the range of surveillance and work through walls, the team increased the volume of these repeating pulses, which made them audible. To mask the sound, they "covered" the pulses by playing songs or other audio clips over them. Some songs work better than others, particularly compositions with repetitive, percussive beats.
The researchers said soundproofing a room and emitting a jamming signal at the same 18 to 20 kHz frequency range would prevent hacked devices or attackers in the next room from gathering information. Another potential defense could be to allow users to deactivate the speakers or microphones on their smart devices.
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